dependencies {


When building applications that require graceful shutdown it typically requires us to write a lot of platform-specific code. This library aims to solve that problem by leveraging Kotlin MPP using KotlinX Coroutines, and Structured Concurrency.

Currently supported targets:

  • JVM

  • MacOsX64 & MacosArm64

  • NodeJS

  • Windows (MingwX64)

  • Linux

SuspendApp currently does not support any mobile or browser targets because it does not make sense to have such application behavior on such platforms. If you have a use-case for this please open a ticket!

Let's see some simple examples that more clearly demonstrate the rationale for SuspendApp.

Simple example

If you see App Started! Waiting until asked to shutdown. try pressing ctrl+C to signal interruption (SIGINT) to the process. You can also use ps -ax to find the PID and call kill PID to send a SIGTERM event to the process.

import arrow.continuations.SuspendApp
import kotlinx.coroutines.CancellationException
import kotlinx.coroutines.NonCancellable
import kotlinx.coroutines.delay
import kotlinx.coroutines.withContext

fun main() = SuspendApp {
try {
println("App Started! Waiting until asked to shutdown.")
while (true) {
} catch (e: CancellationException) {
println("Cleaning up App... will take 10 seconds...")
withContext(NonCancellable) { delay(10_000) }
println("Done cleaning up. Will release app to exit")

Note: since our CoroutineScope is cancelled we need to run our delay in NonCancelable.

SuspendApp Arrow's Resource

Arrow Fx Coroutines Resource allows for modeling resources within the suspend world, and properly takes into account structured concurrency and cancellation. This means that when a CoroutineScope gets cancelled, then any suspend finalizer will back pressure Job#join. And thus when you call cancelAndJoin on a CoroutineScope it will properly await the finalizers to have finished running.

With SuspendApp this means that if someone sends a terminal signal such as SIGINT or SIGTERM to the App then it will run all the suspend finalizers before closing the App.

fun main() = SuspendApp {
resourceScope {
install({ println("Creating some resource") }) { _, exitCase ->
println("ExitCase: $exitCase")
println("Shutting down will take 10 seconds")
println("Shutdown finished")
println("Application running with acquired resources.")

In the example above we have a Resource that during acquisition will print Creating some resource, when the Resource needs to be closed, release, we print the ExitCase with which the Resource was closed, and then we wait for 10 seconds. The Resource already takes care of calling release on a NonCancelable context.

We consume the Resource until our App is cancelled by calling awaitCancellation from KotlinX Coroutines. That gives us the following output, if you press ctrl+c in the terminal.

Creating some resource
Application running with acquired resources.
^CExitCase: Cancelled(exception=kotlinx.coroutines.JobCancellationException: LazyStandaloneCoroutine was cancelled; job=LazyStandaloneCoroutine{Cancelling}@f7470010)
Shutting down will take 10 seconds
Shutdown finished

You can find this example in the example module, currently setup for NodeJS and native targets.

SuspendApp with Ktor

There are some cases where it is convenient to gracefully shutdown a Ktor server. Basically, it is about giving some time to the server to finish some pending processing before turning it off.

Kubernetes is a good example of this need. When we're working with Kubernetes we often need to support Graceful Shutdown . Kubernetes sends SIGTERM to our Pod to signal it needs to gracefully shutdown. However, there is an issue which doesn't allow us to immediately shutdown when we receive SIGTERM from Kubernetes.

Our pod can still receive traffic after SIGTERM, so we need to apply additional back-pressure to delay graceful shutdown. More information on this can be found in this blog by Phil Pearl, and on

The module suspendapp-ktor provides a server constructor that lifts the Ktor ApplicationEngine in to a Resource, representing the Engine running an Application(i.e Netty) while supporting auto-reload. Check the official Ktor documentation to learn more about watchPaths.

When our release function of our ApplicationEngine is called, there is a wait period before the beginning of the stop process (defaulted to 30.seconds), this gives Kubernetes enough time to do all its network management before we shut down. Two more parameters are available: grace which set the number of seconds during which already inflight requests are allowed to continue before the shutdown process begins, and timeout which set the number of seconds after which the server will be forceably shutdown..

Given this Resource definition of a Ktor server, with support for gracefully shutting down for K8S we can define a SuspendApp.

fun main() = SuspendApp {
resourceScope {
server(Netty) {
routing {
get("/ping") {

We also use awaitCancellation here to await SIGTERM, SIGINT or other shutdown hooks, and we let the server Resource back-pressure closing the application for K8s.

SuspendApp with Kafka

Gracefully shutting down is also often needed with other applications, beside K8S. It can be useful in all kinds of applications that need to execute some code before getting shutdown.

Kafka for example, when streaming records from Kafka we need to commit (acknowledge) the offset of the records we've processed. The official recommendation for doing this is committing offsets in batches, so we typically don't send the commit event to Kafka for every processed record. Instead, we commit the offset every 5 seconds (or every x records, 5s is default).

Imagine the application getting stopped after 4,5 seconds, either by ctrl+c or K8S or another type of containerization. We could've processed thousands, or tens of thousands of events. If we don't commit these offsets before shutting down we'd have to re-process all the events.

We can easily prevent this with SuspendApp, and kotlin-kafka or reactor-kafka. Both these high-level Kafka libraries guarantee committing offsets upon termination of the stream, this includes cancellation! In the example below, all calls to acknowledge will be committed to Kafka before the SuspendApp terminates when receiving SIGTERM or SIGINT.

import kotlinx.coroutines.flow.collect
import org.apache.kafka.common.serialization.StringDeserializer
import io.github.nomisRev.kafka.receiver.KafkaReceiver
import io.github.nomisRev.kafka.receiver.ReceiverSettings
import arrow.continuations.SuspendApp

fun main() = SuspendApp {
val settings: ReceiverSettings<Nothing, String> = ReceiverSettings(
bootstrapServers = kafka.bootstrapServers,
groupId = "group-id",
valueDeserializer = StringDeserializer()
.map { record ->
println("${record.key()} -> ${record.value()}")

Running SuspendApp applications on different platforms

A small tutorial on how you can configure and run SuspendApp on the different platforms. For more details on Kotlin Multiplatform configuration consult the official documentation here. Just ./gradlew build the project, and launch the created binaries as shown in the sections belows.

Node App

Make sure you configure your NodeJS app to be executable.

js(IR) {
nodejs {

You can run your NodeJS app with the following node command, and if you press ctrl+c within the first 2500ms you will see the following output.

node build/js/packages/YourAppName/kotlin/YourAppName.js

App Started! Waiting until asked to shutdown.
^CCleaning up App... will take 10 seconds...
Done cleaning up. Will release app to exit

Native App

Make sure you configure your Native app(s) to be executable.

linuxX64 {
mingwX64 {
macosArm64 {
macosX64 {

You can run your Native app with the following command, and if you press ctrl+c within the first 2500ms you will see the following output.

./gradlew build

App Started! Waiting until asked to shutdown.
^CCleaning up App... will take 10 seconds...
Done cleaning up. Will release app to exit


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